# Apply changes with the securityadmin script

The security plugin stores its configuration—including users, roles, and permissions—in an index on the OpenSearch cluster (.opendistro_security). Storing these settings in an index lets you change settings without restarting the cluster and eliminates the need to edit configuration files on every single node.

To initialize the .opendistro_security index, however, you must run plugins/opensearch-security/tools/securityadmin.sh. This script loads your initial configuration into the index using the configuration files in config/opensearch-security. After the .opendistro_security index is initialized, use OpenSearch Dashboards or the REST API to manage your users, roles, and permissions.

## A word of caution

If you make changes to the configuration files in config/opensearch-security, OpenSearch does not automatically apply these changes. Instead, you must run securityadmin.sh to load the updated files into the index.

Running securityadmin.sh overwrites one or more portions of the .opendistro_security index. Run it with extreme care to avoid losing your existing resources. Consider the following example:

1. You initialize the .opendistro_security index.
2. You create ten users using the REST API.
3. You decide to create a new reserved user using internal_users.yml.
4. You run securityadmin.sh again to load the new reserved user into the index.
5. You lose all ten users that you created using the REST API.

To avoid this situation, back up your current configuration before making changes and re-running the script:

./securityadmin.sh -backup my-backup-directory \
-icl \
-nhnv \
-cacert ../../../config/root-ca.pem \
-cert ../../../config/kirk.pem \
-key ../../../config/kirk-key.pem


If you use the -f argument rather than -cd, you can load a single YAML file into the index rather than the entire directory of YAML files. For example, if you create ten new roles, you can safely load internal_users.yml into the index without losing your roles; only the internal users get overwritten.

./securityadmin.sh -f ../../../config/opensearch-security/internal_users.yml \
-t internalusers \
-icl \
-nhnv \
-cacert ../../../config/root-ca.pem \
-cert ../../../config/kirk.pem \
-key ../../../config/kirk-key.pem


To resolve all environment variables before applying the security configurations, use the -rev parameter.

./securityadmin.sh -cd ../../../config/opensearch-security/ \
-rev \
-cacert ../../../root-ca.pem \
-cert ../../../kirk.pem \
-key ../../../kirk.key.pem


Here’s an example of an environment variable in the config.yml file:

password: \${env.LDAP_PASSWORD}


In order to use securityadmin.sh, you must add the distinguished names (DNs) of all admin certificates to opensearch.yml. If you use the demo certificates, for example, opensearch.yml might contain the following lines for the kirk certificate:

plugins.security.authcz.admin_dn:
- CN=kirk,OU=client,O=client,L=test,C=DE


You can’t use node certificates as admin certificates. The two must be separate. Also, do not add whitespace between the parts of the DN.

## Basic usage

The securityadmin.sh tool can be run from any machine that has access to the http port of your OpenSearch cluster (the default port is 9200). You can change the security plugin configuration without having to access your nodes through SSH.

securityadmin.sh requires that SSL/TLS transport is enabled on your opensearch cluster. In other words, make sure that the plugins.security.ssl.http.enabled: true is set in opensearch.yml before proceeding.

Each node also includes the tool at plugins/opensearch-security/tools/securityadmin.sh. You might need to make the script executable before running it:

chmod +x plugins/opensearch-security/tools/securityadmin.sh


To print all available command line options, run the script with no arguments:

./plugins/opensearch-security/tools/securityadmin.sh


To load your initial configuration (all YAML files), you might use the following command:

./securityadmin.sh -cd ../../../config/opensearch-security/ -icl -nhnv \
-cacert ../../../config/root-ca.pem \
-cert ../../../config/kirk.pem \
-key ../../../config/kirk-key.pem

• The -cd option specifies where the security plugin configuration files can be found.
• The -icl (--ignore-clustername) option tells the security plugin to upload the configuration regardless of the cluster name. As an alternative, you can also specify the cluster name with the -cn (--clustername) option.
• Because the demo certificates are self-signed, this command disables hostname verification with the -nhnv (--disable-host-name-verification) option.
• The -cacert, -cert and -key options define the location of your root CA certificate, the admin certificate, and the private key for the admin certificate. If the private key has a password, specify it with the -keypass option.

The following table shows the PEM options.

Name Description
-cert The location of the PEM file containing the admin certificate and all intermediate certificates, if any. You can use an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to the execution directory of securityadmin.sh.
-key The location of the PEM file containing the private key of the admin certificate. You can use an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to the execution directory of securityadmin.sh. The key must be in PKCS#8 format.
-keypass The password of the private key of the admin certificate, if any.
-cacert The location of the PEM file containing the root certificate. You can use an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to the execution directory of securityadmin.sh.

## Sample commands

Apply all YAML files in config/opensearch-security/ using PEM certificates:

/usr/share/opensearch/plugins/opensearch-security/tools/securityadmin.sh \
-cacert /etc/opensearch/root-ca.pem \
-cert /etc/opensearch/kirk.pem \
-key /etc/opensearch/kirk-key.pem \
-cd /usr/share/opensearch/config/opensearch-security/


Apply a single YAML file (config.yml) using PEM certificates:

./securityadmin.sh \
-f ../../../config/opensearch-security/config.yml \
-icl -nhnv -cert /etc/opensearch/kirk.pem \
-cacert /etc/opensearch/root-ca.pem \
-key /etc/opensearch/kirk-key.pem \
-t config


Apply all YAML files in config/opensearch-security/ with keystore and truststore files:

./securityadmin.sh \
-cd /usr/share/opensearch/config/opensearch-security/ \
-ks /path/to/keystore.jks \
-kspass changeit \
-ts /path/to/truststore.jks \
-tspass changeit
-nhnv
-icl


## Using securityadmin with keystore and truststore files

You can also use keystore files in JKS format in conjunction with securityadmin.sh:

./securityadmin.sh -cd ../../../config/opensearch-security -icl -nhnv


Use the following options to control the key and truststore settings.

Name Description
-ks The location of the keystore containing the admin certificate and all intermediate certificates, if any. You can use an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to the execution directory of securityadmin.sh.
-kspass The password for the keystore.
-kst The key store type, either JKS or PKCS#12/PFX. If not specified, the security plugin tries to determine the type from the file extension.
-ksalias The alias of the admin certificate, if any.
-ts The location of the truststore containing the root certificate. You can use an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to the execution directory of securityadmin.sh.
-tspass The password for the truststore.
-tst The truststore type, either JKS or PKCS#12/PFX. If not specified, the security plugin tries to determine the type from the file extension.
-tsalias The alias for the root certificate, if any.

### OpenSearch settings

If you run a default OpenSearch installation, which listens on port 9200 and uses opensearch as a cluster name, you can omit the following settings altogether. Otherwise, specify your OpenSearch settings by using the following switches.

Name Description
-h OpenSearch hostname. Default is localhost.
-p OpenSearch port. Default is 9200 - not the HTTP port.
-cn Cluster name. Default is opensearch.
-icl Ignore cluster name.
-sniff Sniff cluster nodes. Sniffing detects available nodes using the OpenSearch _cluster/state API.
-arc,--accept-red-cluster Execute securityadmin.sh even if the cluster state is red. Default is false, which means the script will not execute on a red cluster.

### Certificate validation settings

Use the following options to control certificate validation.

Name Description
-nhnv Do not validate hostname. Default is false.
-nrhn Do not resolve hostname. Only relevant if -nhnv is not set.
-noopenssl Do not use OpenSSL, even if available. Default is to use OpenSSL if it is available.

### Configuration files settings

The following switches define which configuration files you want to push to the security plugin. You can either push a single file or specify a directory containing one or more configuration files.

Name Description
-cd Directory containing multiple security plugin configuration files.
-f Single configuration file. Can’t be used with -cd.
-t File type.
-rl Reload the current configuration and flush the internal cache.

To upload all configuration files in a directory, use this:

./securityadmin.sh -cd ../../../config/opensearch-security -ts ... -tspass ... -ks ... -kspass ...


If you want to push a single configuration file, use this:

./securityadmin.sh -f ../../../config/opensearch-security/internal_users.yml -t internalusers  \
-ts ... -tspass ... -ks ... -kspass ...


The file type must be one of the following:

• config
• roles
• rolesmapping
• internalusers
• actiongroups

### Cipher settings

You probably won’t need to change cipher settings. If you need to, use the following options.

Name Description
-ec Comma-separated list of enabled TLS ciphers.
-ep Comma-separated list of enabled TLS protocols.

### Backup, restore, and migrate

./securityadmin.sh -backup my-backup-directory -ts ... -tspass ... -ks ... -kspass ...


This command dumps the current security plugin configuration from your cluster to individual files in the directory you specify. You can then use these files as backups or to load the configuration into a different cluster. This command is useful when moving a proof-of-concept to production or if you need to add additional reserved or hidden resources:

./securityadmin.sh \
-backup my-backup-directory \
-icl \
-nhnv \
-cacert ../../../config/root-ca.pem \
-cert ../../../config/kirk.pem \
-key ../../../config/kirk-key.pem


To upload the dumped files to another cluster:

./securityadmin.sh -h production.example.com -p 9301 -cd /etc/backup/ -ts ... -tspass ... -ks ... -kspass ...


To migrate configuration YAML files from the Open Distro for Elasticsearch 0.x.x format to the OpenSearch 1.x.x format:

./securityadmin.sh -migrate ../../../config/opensearch-security -ts ... -tspass ... -ks ... -kspass ...

Name Description
-backup Retrieve the current security plugin configuration from a running cluster and dump it to the working directory.
-migrate Migrate configuration YAML files from Open Distro for Elasticsearch 0.x.x to OpenSearch 1.x.x.

### Other options

Name Description
-dci Delete the security plugin configuration index and exit. This option is useful if the cluster state is red due to a corrupted security plugin index.
-esa Enable shard allocation and exit. This option is useful if you disabled shard allocation while performing a full cluster restart and need to recreate the security plugin index.
-w Displays information about the used admin certificate.
-rl By default, the security plugin caches authenticated users, along with their roles and permissions, for one hour. This option reloads the current security plugin configuration stored in your cluster, invalidating any cached users, roles, and permissions.
-i The security plugin index name. Default is .opendistro_security.
-er Set explicit number of replicas or auto-expand expression for the opensearch_security index.
-era Enable replica auto-expand.
-dra Disable replica auto-expand.
-us Update the replica settings.

## Windows usage

On Windows, the equivalent of securityadmin.sh is the securityadmin.bat script located in the \path\to\opensearch-2.4.0\plugins\opensearch-security\tools\ directory.

When running the example commands in the preceding sections, use the command prompt or Powershell. Open the command prompt by entering cmd or Powershell by entering powershell in the search box next to Start on the taskbar.

For example, to print all available command line options, run the script with no arguments:

.\plugins\opensearch-security\tools\securityadmin.bat


When entering a multiline command, use the caret (^) character to escape the next character in the command line.

For example, to load your initial configuration (all YAML files), use the following command:

.\securityadmin.bat -cd ..\..\..\config\opensearch-security\ -icl -nhnv ^
-cacert ..\..\..\config\root-ca.pem ^
-cert ..\..\..\config\kirk.pem ^
-key ..\..\..\config\kirk-key.pem