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Update document

Introduced 1.0

If you need to update a document’s fields in your index, you can use the update document API operation. You can do so by specifying the new data you want in your index or by including a script in your request body, which OpenSearch runs to update the document.


POST /sample-index1/_update/1
  "doc": {
    "first_name" : "Bruce",
    "last_name" : "Wayne"

Script example

POST /test-index1/_update/1
  "script" : {
    "source": "ctx._source.secret_identity = \"Batman\""

Path and HTTP methods

POST /<index>/_update/<_id>

URL parameters

Parameter Type Description Required
<index> String Name of the index. Yes
<_id> String The ID of the document to update. Yes
if_seq_no Integer Only perform the delete operation if the document’s version number matches the specified number. No
if_primary_term Integer Perform the update operation if the document has the specified primary term. No
lang String Language of the script. Default is painless. No
require_alias Boolean Specifies whether the destination must be an index alias. Default is false. No
refresh Enum If true, OpenSearch refreshes shards to make the operation visible to searching. Valid options are true, false, and wait_for, which tells OpenSearch to wait for a refresh before executing the operation. Default is false. No
retry_on_conflict Integer The amount of times OpenSearch should retry the operation if there’s a document conflict. Default is 0. No
routing String Value to route the update operation to a specific shard. No
_source List Whether to include the _source field in the response body. Default is true. No
_source_excludes List A comma-separated list of source fields to exclude in the query response. No
_source_includes List A comma-separated list of source fields to include in the query response. No
timeout Time How long to wait for a response from the cluster. No
wait_for_active_shards String The number of active shards that must be available before OpenSearch processes the update request. Default is 1 (only the primary shard). Set to all or a positive integer. Values greater than 1 require replicas. For example, if you specify a value of 3, the index must have two replicas distributed across two additional nodes for the operation to succeed. No

Request body

Your request body must contain the information you want to update your document with. If you just want to replace certain fields in your document, your request body must include a doc object, which has the fields you want to update.

  "doc": {
    "first_name": "Thomas",
    "last_name": "Wayne"

You can also use a script to tell OpenSearch how to update your document.

  "script" : {
    "source": "ctx._source.oldValue += params.newValue",
    "lang": "painless",
    "params" : {
      "newValue" : 10


  "_index": "sample-index1",
  "_type": "_doc",
  "_id": "1",
  "_version": 3,
  "result": "updated",
  "_shards": {
    "total": 2,
    "successful": 2,
    "failed": 0
  "_seq_no": 4,
  "_primary_term": 17

Response body fields

Field Description
_index The name of the index.
_type The document’s type. OpenSearch only supports one type, which is _doc.
_id The document’s ID.
_version The document’s version.
_result The result of the delete operation.
_shards Detailed information about the cluster’s shards.
total The total number of shards.
successful The number of shards OpenSearch succssfully deleted the document from.
failed The number of shards OpenSearch failed to delete the document from.
_seq_no The sequence number assigned when the document was indexed.
_primary_term The primary term assigned when the document was indexed.