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This version of the OpenSearch documentation is no longer maintained. For the latest version, see the current documentation. For information about OpenSearch version maintenance, see Release Schedule and Maintenance Policy.

Functions

The SQL language supports all SQL plugin common functions, including relevance search, but also introduces a few function synonyms, which are available in SQL only. These synonyms are provided by the V1 engine. For more information, see Limitations.

Match query

The MATCHQUERY and MATCH_QUERY functions are synonyms for the MATCH relevance function. They don’t accept additional arguments but provide an alternate syntax.

Syntax

To use matchquery or match_query, pass in your search query and the field name that you want to search against:

match_query(field_expression, query_expression[, option=<option_value>]*)
matchquery(field_expression, query_expression[, option=<option_value>]*)
field_expression = match_query(query_expression[, option=<option_value>]*)
field_expression = matchquery(query_expression[, option=<option_value>]*)

You can specify the following options in any order:

  • analyzer
  • boost

Example

You can use MATCHQUERY to replace MATCH:

SELECT account_number, address
FROM accounts
WHERE MATCHQUERY(address, 'Holmes')

Alternatively, you can use MATCH_QUERY to replace MATCH:

SELECT account_number, address
FROM accounts
WHERE address = MATCH_QUERY('Holmes')

The results contain documents in which the address contains “Holmes”:

account_number address
1 880 Holmes Lane

Multi-match

There are three synonyms for MULTI_MATCH, each with a slightly different syntax. They accept a query string and a fields list with weights. They can also accept additional optional parameters.

Syntax

multimatch('query'=query_expression[, 'fields'=field_expression][, option=<option_value>]*)
multi_match('query'=query_expression[, 'fields'=field_expression][, option=<option_value>]*)
multimatchquery('query'=query_expression[, 'fields'=field_expression][, option=<option_value>]*)

The fields parameter is optional and can contain a single field or a comma-separated list (whitespace characters are not allowed). The weight for each field is optional and is specified after the field name. It should be delimited by the caret character – ^ – without whitespace.

Example

The following queries show the fields parameter of a multi-match query with a single field and a field list:

multi_match('fields' = "Tags^2,Title^3.4,Body,Comments^0.3", ...)
multi_match('fields' = "Title", ...)

You can specify the following options in any order:

  • analyzer
  • boost
  • slop
  • type
  • tie_breaker
  • operator

Query string

The QUERY function is a synonym for QUERY_STRING.

Syntax

query('query'=query_expression[, 'fields'=field_expression][, option=<option_value>]*)

The fields parameter is optional and can contain a single field or a comma-separated list (whitespace characters are not allowed). The weight for each field is optional and is specified after the field name. It should be delimited by the caret character – ^ – without whitespace.

Example

The following queries show the fields parameter of a multi-match query with a single field and a field list:

query('fields' = "Tags^2,Title^3.4,Body,Comments^0.3", ...)
query('fields' = "Tags", ...)

You can specify the following options in any order:

  • analyzer
  • boost
  • slop
  • default_field

Example of using query_string in SQL and PPL queries:

The following is a sample REST API search request in OpenSearch DSL.

GET accounts/_search
{
  "query": {
    "query_string": {
      "query": "Lane Street",
      "fields": [ "address" ],
    }
  }
}

The request above is equivalent to the following query function:

SELECT account_number, address
FROM accounts
WHERE query('address:Lane OR address:Street')

The results contain addresses that contain “Lane” or “Street”:

account_number address
1 880 Holmes Lane
6 671 Bristol Street
13 789 Madison Street

Match phrase

The MATCHPHRASEQUERY function is a synonym for MATCH_PHRASE.

Syntax

matchphrasequery(query_expression, field_expression[, option=<option_value>]*)

You can specify the following options in any order:

  • analyzer
  • boost
  • slop

Score query

To return a relevance score along with every matching document, use the SCORE, SCOREQUERY, or SCORE_QUERY functions.

Syntax

The SCORE function expects two arguments. The first argument is the MATCH_QUERY expression. The second argument is an optional floating-point number to boost the score (the default value is 1.0):

SCORE(match_query_expression, score)
SCOREQUERY(match_query_expression, score)
SCORE_QUERY(match_query_expression, score)

Example

The following example uses the SCORE function to boost the documents’ scores:

SELECT account_number, address, _score
FROM accounts
WHERE SCORE(MATCH_QUERY(address, 'Lane'), 0.5) OR
  SCORE(MATCH_QUERY(address, 'Street'), 100)
ORDER BY _score

The results contain matches with corresponding scores:

account_number address score
1 880 Holmes Lane 0.5
6 671 Bristol Street 100
13 789 Madison Street 100

Wildcard query

To search documents by a given wildcard, use the WILDCARDQUERY or WILDCARD_QUERY functions.

Syntax

wildcardquery(field_expression, query_expression[, boost=<value>])
wildcard_query(field_expression, query_expression[, boost=<value>])

Example

The following example uses a wildcard query:

SELECT account_number, address
FROM accounts
WHERE wildcard_query(address, '*Holmes*');

The results contain documents that match the wildcard expression:

account_number address
1 880 Holmes Lane
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